Introduction to educational research a critical thinking approach 2012

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3 - Teaching Critical Thinking as if Our Future Depends on It, Because It Does

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  • Introduction to Educational Research: A Critical Thinking Approach | UVA Library | Virgo!

You may send this item to up to five recipients. The name field is required. Please enter your name. The E-mail message field is required. Please enter the message. Please verify that you are not a robot. Would you also like to submit a review for this item? Although he uses different language to define systems thinking, as he operationalizes systems thinking, the outcome is critical thinking, as leaders must be able to see the big picture and assemble all the new and disparate pieces of information into a meaningful whole. Organizations that will thrive in the future will have leaders that can discern ways to address the consequences of a changing workforce by imagining people in roles different than traditionally experienced.

One can then conjecture that higher critical thinking skills might also lead to more accepting views of other minorities as well. Leadership in the global economy also dictates new competencies Hoppe, The world now exists as a global market with lines of demarcation becoming fuzzy at best. The consideration and acceptance of difference must happen outside the egocentric sphere of dependent stage leaders. Since it has already been posited that global leaders must operate from the independent stage be able to consider the viewpoint of others , one could also postulate that effective global leadership requires critical thinking.

Leadership is not inert; it is a very dynamic endeavor. Leaders must remain relevant Wyche, by overcoming the shortcomings associated with moving up the corporate ladder Drath, These represent new competencies for leaders. Organizations must recognize that leaders in different stages of their career possess different skills and have different critical thinking needs.


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Executive coaching, based on career development stage, has been found to increase critical thinking Axelrod, Of those who responded, How has higher education performed to date given this mandate? In recent decades the idea of critical thinking has become ingrained in the educational system although the concept of educating students to think critically is not particularly new. Developing critical thinking in students remains one of the main goals of college education Van Gelder, As bastions of knowledge, colleges and universities clearly understand the impetus to develop students with content specific knowledge.

Furthermore, they understand the philosophical need to teach students to be independent thinkers capable of thinking complexly across different dimensions.

“Critical Thinking Skills” by David Sotir

What has been uneven is the methodology, training, and administrative support, and concomitantly, the results of these programs. Thinking as information processing has been at the core of thinking pedagogy since the inception of formal education McGuiness, Teachers possessed a list of items students needed to know by the end of the class. Given the traditional goals of teaching throughout history, the methods were not only appropriate, they were effective. To this end, students have been graduating with increasingly deep knowledge bases.

To the extent the needs of society were congruent with deep content knowledge there was general acceptance of the output of the educational system. As we have developed into a knowledge society, with global, ethical, and moral problems unprecedented in their scope and nature, the goal of simply imparting knowledge may no longer serve society well. Paul offers three reasons for this discrepancy. He believes the majority of teachers do not understand the concept of critical thinking.

One cannot effectively teach what one does not understand. He further posits that most teachers do not realize they operate from this deficit position. Lastly, he blames the continued use of traditional teaching techniques such as memorization and lectures. These methods fail to emotionally engage students and do not require them to examine their assumptions. Students must experience the limitations of an egocentric worldview before they can advance.

Despite the previous findings suggesting that teachers as a whole are not equipped to teach critical thinking, there have been promising results from those who are teaching to a critical thinking model. This situated learning also provides coaching and support to the neophyte in the early stages of their career development. Using peers as coaches in formal programs also leads to better critical thinking Ladyshewsky, Metacognitive reflection is knowing that one thinks, and applying the known to solve complex problems.

Transforming and intensive reflection is knowing why you think what you think. Lizzio and Wilson further expound on reflection by introducing three practices for the development of reflective thinking: challenge students to understand that they make meaning based on their internal assumptions, challenge students to understand that these assumptions must be continually evaluated, and have students take responsibility for their decisions based on their reflections. This then allows one to consider evidence from multiple perspectives in keeping with a critical thinking approach.

This model places value on the student's previous knowledge and experience. In this teaching model the application of learning theory guides critical reflection, which in turn leads to development of capability. Students must have, or develop, a disposition to understand when a particular skill is needed and the willingness to invoke the skill Halpern, Peters argues that these different approaches indicate the need for educators to be open to different kinds of thinking and styles of reasoning.

He argues that cognitive development does not operate in a vacuum and therefore needs to recognize the historical and cultural ties to thinking. He uses the typology developed by Heidegger to illustrate his point. These collectives develop uniform application of thought processes to define scientific facts. New members are normalized in the existing thought process. It is in these discrepancies between old and new collectives that critical thinking and innovation thrives.

Students who were taught a course using dialogue as the heuristic for processing ideas in the classroom advanced the development of critical thinking Mayo, Dialogue was found to elicit creative thinking in college students. Students were required to attribute anonymous statements to famous philosophers and explain their rationale in writing. In addition, each was required to orally defend their reasoning. This teaching model is rooted in the social component of learning. Teachers need to be mindful that practice produces proficiency and that their role should be as participant rather than director to be most effective.

Still another approach suggests that the key to teaching critical thinking is teaching to the developmental stage of the student Barbuto, Once this is known, the instructor can decide on the appropriate teaching methods based on the objectives of the instructor.

The outcomes need to be evaluated continually and be used to guide future decisions. This approach recognizes that students are at different developmental stages, and as a result, cannot all be taught in the same manner. Managers who are simply good at a specific job will not meet the needs of tomorrow's workforce. The report details four areas that employers feel are most important for new entrants to the workforce to master.

Offsetting this belief were the respondents who expressed concerns that only This leaves about three out of four students with perceived critical thinking deficits. The PBDS has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument for testing critical thinking del Bueno, Nowhere is critical thinking more imperative than in the life and death world of nursing care.

Without critical thinking patients can be mismanaged, leading to adverse outcomes.

In the business setting, failure to think critically can result in missed opportunities, faulty decisions, inefficiencies, and ineffectiveness. Never before has the need for good leaders in the workforce been more indispensable. Is faulty leadership then tied to critical thinking deficits? Lord and Hall advanced a theory of leadership development that suggests that leaders' identities emerge from an egocentric emphasis to a collective emphasis as they progress from novice to intermediate to expert with qualitative differences in information processing at each level.

They posit that leaders need to develop new thinking that goes beyond the acquiring of surface skills knowledge. These more developed attributes correlate well with the qualities a critical thinker needs to possess. Leaders operating from less than an expert orientation may not possess the full complement of thinking skills necessary to effectively guide organizations, leading to poor decisions. How leaders make decisions impacts the quality of their decisions.

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The process of thinking involves making sense of current issues in light of historical experiences. To avoid distortion in this process one needs to be able to think critically. It may be that we can only limit distortion given this parameter. Paul and Elder advanced a construct that explains how the mind processes information. Inert information is learned information that the thinker thinks they understand when in actuality they do not.

This leads to activated ignorance, or the use of inert information to guide thinking. Because activated ignorance takes no special effort and is the apparent thing to do, it is easy for leaders to rely erroneously on this type of thinking. Without critical thinking and reflection one will naturally tend to use inert information.

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Critical Thinking in Higher Education: How to foster it using Digital Media | SpringerLink

Critical thinkers can look past inert information to develop activated knowledge, which in turns helps develop more knowledge, and better decisions. According to the Conference Board report , the educational system needs to do a better job of producing critical thinkers. There are several obstacles to instituting critical thinking in colleges and universities that have become deeply entrenched in the academic system.