India emerging as superpower essay
By all measures of international power, China has a long way to go to rival the power in international affairs of the United States in the manner that the Soviet Union did. Using these dimensions, arguably, Britain was the prototype superpower in the nineteenth century. An island country lacking in industrial resources, Britain created a worldwide empire of colonies that sustained British economic power and made the British pound the standard of exchange in the international economy.
But its military dominance came late, with its gigantic mobilization during World War II.
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Although the United States demobilized all but 1. With the institution of a centralized foreign affairs and security apparatus of a scale and complexity unprecedented in American history under the National Security Act and the military mobilization authorized by the watershed directive NSC 68, Washington acquired the panoply of instruments to pursue a far more internationalist and interventionist approach to international affairs. Building a system of alliances, the United States established a global chain of bases and military access relationships that allowed Washington to project military force anywhere in the world.
In the postwar period, defense industries remained an abiding presence in the budgets of successive Democratic and Republican administrations alike and in the American economy overall.
American economic power in the postwar years was similarly without parallel. While all of the other industrial powers saw their economies devastated by the war, the American economy was revitalized by it. In the early postwar years, U. Reflecting American economic hegemony, the American dollar became the standard to which, under the Bretton Woods system, most other countries pegged their currencies. The rise of Soviet power challenged this position, and for a time in the s, with the collapse of the Bretton Woods system and the revision of American security commitments under the Guam Doctrine—it seemed that American hegemony was in serious retreat.
Bush and then the collapse of the USSR altogether in , however, resoundingly confirmed American hegemony in the international system. Since the end of the Cold War, the United States has enjoyed a period of dominance in international affairs that rivals its position immediately after World War II. Debate about American dominance has focused not about its reality but about its limits, its duration, and the purposes to which it might be used in recasting the international order.
At the end of the war, it had, like the United States, twelve million troops under arms. But under Stalin, Moscow sought to consolidate a ring of buffer states around its periphery. It did seek to expand its influence and potential control over other regions on its periphery in Iran, in the Turkish straits, in Greece, and in central Europe. But in each case, it backed off when faced by concerted American and British pressure. In contrast to American economic strength, the Soviet economy was devastated by the war. Although Moscow eventually created a community of planned economies and trade partners in its East European satellites, broader international trade was limited by the non-convertibility of the ruble and the necessity for barter agreements.
Moscow also commanded political influence through the network of Marxist-Leninist parties and movements throughout the world. The Soviet Union acquired standing as a superpower only after the mids. It broke the American nuclear monopoly with the detonation of its first atomic bomb in and first hydrogen bomb in With the success of its missile programs, signified by its launch of the Sputnik satellite in and the flight of first cosmonaut Yuriy Gagarin in , and with its development of long-range bombers and nuclear submarines, the Soviet Union emerged as a power of global strategic reach.
By the s, it achieved strategic parity with the United States. Moscow worked to recruit clients and potential allies in a global contest with the United States in newly independent states in Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America. The rise of Soviet power abroad seemed to be confirmed at home with impressive economic growth rates throughout the s and, to a lesser degree, in the s. With the historical examples of Britain and the Soviet Union and the yardstick of continuing American power today in hand, we may assess the candidacy of China as a potential superpower.
These trends are important. China was composed of several dynasties.
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The dynastic cycle played a definitive role in the successions of Chinese empires. The combined contributions from all the regimes, not only led to the success and progress of China, but defined it as well There are many key aspects that go into countries being powerful; some of these aspects are having a powerful military, strong economy, large population and a powerful but strong government. Most key aspects of what makes a country strong are also the same the aspects that make up the operational environment variables The outcome of his passion and belief in the potential of China is still noticeable today.
Becoming international is an important factor in assisting organizations in becoming globally competitive. Globalization has become a prevalent spectacle over the past two decades. This is the case and it is not a surprise at this day and age to discover world brands in distant locations throughout of the globe Essay Preview. Read Full Essay Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper. Need Writing Help? Developments in Ancient China Essay - In the early years of China, the Chinese began a period of establishment in the world with ideas and teachings of new religions, changing powers, and building empires.
In China, the gini coefficient a measure of income inequality that ranges from 0 for perfect equality to 1 for complete inequality has increased from 0. In India is was just 0. China has advanced much more rapidly than India in improving literacy and overall educational attainment.
Is India An Economic Superpower In the Making?
The average educational attainment of the Chinese population 15 years old and above in was 6. Moreover, in the past 10 years, China has been investing very heavily in expanding its higher education system. China raised its tertiary enrollment rate from 5. India, on the other hand, increased its rate from 6.
The tertiary enrollment rate in the US is The overall quality of tertiary students from China and India is still very low. The Chinese economy has undergone significant industrial restructuring over the past 25 years. The Indian economy has not undergone such drastic structural change.
In fact, the share of the manufacturing sector has not changed over the past 20 years. However, there has been a significant growth of the service sector. Part of this has been forced growth of self-employment in low-value service activities because the modern sector of the economy has not been able to absorb the rapidly growing labor force.
However, there has been a rapid increase in high-value business services.
Is India An Economic Superpower In the Making?
These include not just offshore services, but also the establishment of many banking and consulting service operations in India, including many managed by major multinational companies such as General Electric, IBM, other technology firms, and investment banks. Attainment of Adult Pop.
Fixed and mobile phones per Persons One of the main differences in the development strategies of these two giants is the extent, timing, and means through which they have acquired global knowledge. It is also part of the explanation for their different performance and growth paths. As a broad characterization, China has embraced globalization and has been benefiting very much from this.
India has been much more autarkic and circumspect. It opened up much later and much more slowly, and is still not as integrated. The main means of tapping into global knowledge are trade, foreign direct investment, technology licensing, copying and reverse engineering, foreign education and training, and accessing foreign technical print information and through the internet see Table 2 for comparative data on all but the last of these means.
On all these counts, China has been more aggressive and systematic than has India. China began opening up to the world much earlier than did India and has became much more integrated into the global economy. Purchases of foreign products and services are a key way to gain access to knowledge embodied in those goods and services.
Unlike China, which has significantly removed tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade as part of its joining the WTO, India is still one of the most closed economies in the world. Having to export in competition with the rest of the world also forces exporters to keep up with the new products, designs, and process technologies, quality improvements, and even new business models of competitors.
Also, having close exposure to foreign goods and services provides greater opportunity to copy and reverse engineer them. Foreign Direct Investment. The inflows of foreign direct investment into China have been several multiples those into India Table 2. This is the result of several factors. First, China opened up it regulatory regime towards foreign direct investment earlier and wider than did India. This strong pull of producing in China has also permitted the government to encourage strong competition among foreign multinational firms to bring their very best technology when they locate in China, even though they are very aware of poor intellectual property protection and the risk that their technology will be pirated.
Technology licensing. China has also been much more aggressive in licensing foreign knowledge through formal technology-licensing agreements. Chinese royalty and fee payments are more than ten times those of India. Foreign education. China has been sending more tertiary level students abroad for education and training, even now that it has a much larger tertiary education system than India in absolute and relative terms.
Foreign education and training are very important means to tap into global knowledge. These students not only learn what they study, but a large number of them are the researchers at higher education institutions around the world.
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Many also go on to work in the high technology firms in the United States and Europe. Until a few years ago, many of them stayed on in their host countries. However, in the past five years more of them are returning to China and India, in part because of increasing opportunities in their home countries and attractive incentive programs designed by their home countries to stem this brain drain. Copying and reverse engineering. Greater access to foreign knowledge through all the formal channels listed above, higher levels of human and technological capital, and a policy now changing of ignoring intellectual property rights laws have given China an advantage in copying and reverse-engineering foreign technology.
The strength of these two countries can be seen in many areas such as their nuclear, space, and biotechnology programs. By , it was spending 1. It is estimated that by the percentage had increased to 1. This still puts it far behind the United States, but the gap is narrowing. However, in the past two years there has been increasing spending by the private sector, particularly in information and communications technology, autos, and pharmaceuticals.
go here Two commonly used broad output measures are scientific and technical publications and U.